THE TOOLS OF EXPLORATION
Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA)
The SFA allows us to directly measure normal and lateral forces between atomically smooth surfaces, bare or supporting molecules (e.g., proteins, polymers, surfactants) in controlled vapors or immersed in liquids with very high normal resolution (0.1 nm).
Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D)
QCM-D allows us to monitor how molecules (e.g., proteins, polymers, surfactants) and cells interact with surfaces in liquids by monitoring the frequency and energy dissipation of an oscillating quartz crystal.
Inverted Epifluorescence Microscope
We use the inverted epifluorescent microscope to investigate how epithelial cell colonies respond to either mechanical or chemical perturbations over long periods of time (several days) in engineered microenvironments.