THE TOOLS OF EXPLORATION
Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) (arriving soon…)
The SFA allows us to directly measure normal and lateral forces between atomically smooth surfaces, bare or supporting molecules (e.g., proteins, polymers, surfactants) in controlled vapors or immersed in liquids with very high normal resolution (0.1 nm).
Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D)
QCM-D allows us to monitor how molecules (e.g., proteins, polymers, surfactants) and cells interact with surfaces in liquids by monitoring the frequency and energy dissipation of an oscillating quartz crystal.